Looking for:

Expert pdf 8 professional free free

Click here to Download

User-friendly interface that will provide a good collection of PDF conversion and editing tools · PDF to Word or image conversion, OCR, integrated email client. It is a very good PDF editor (it is a real editor — you can edit content of PDFs with this program), converter (e.g. PDF to Word), and creator .

[Windows] Free Expert PDF 8 Professional (fully featured PDF editor)! | dotTech – How to Build a Go Kart: The Steps


With the print driver, you can create PDF files as easily as if you microsoft outlook office 2010 free download printing a document to a regular printer.

You can merge several documents into a single PDF and send it automatically by email. All tools are easy to access, like adding and deleting text, images and links. Making annotation on the crucial content enables you to find the important content on a Gree document next time.

Note: Смотрите подробнее may blacklist the given license after a certain time they did so in many Giveawaysso try at your own risk. Blocking the access to the internet for all applications ecpert PDF Experte reader, printer, batch converter, creator etc. Go to this giveaway page Page in German, use Google Translate if neededand profeessional required details. Profeessional copy of the free serial number will also be sent to your email for reference.

Alternatively, here are the Professionap as well as some other language versions for this giveaway license:. If you have chosen to download the German installer but still want to use it in English, then close the program and use one expert pdf 8 professional free free the two methods below. Change this registry. Then Navigate to the following paths:. Search and find all. If you received a message that your license is expert pdf 8 professional free free, please double check the details you entered, especially making sure there are no extra spaces at the beginning or the end of the license.

Google Translate will give you как сообщается здесь incorrect professjonal and not allow the registration. Follow below simply steps to grab your free copy:. Go to this giveaway page Page in Germanand enter required details. Then unlock full version with received serial number. If you received a freee that your license is invalid, please double check rree details you entered, especially making sure there are no extra spaces at the end of the license.

Then install the German version, license, change GUI to English, and copy in the 3 chm files and the samples folder. Note the expertpdf. These installers pddf different; they ask you for the code during installation, so after you activate it, it would never remind you again to activate it not trial version. You can get the English Pro or German Ultimate edition; both are the same, and the key works on both.

In the application however, there is no update button. This rfee how you can use the professkonal key. Dear Jed, This is really strange. I used the English installer. I think the German installer should be used. I am sorry for this. Till now there is no solution for this available. The so called serial is blocked and blacklisted by the vendor.

Gree offer has expired now. Therefore, expert pdf 8 professional free free software cannot run with this serial number. You have been given a period of 3 day s.

The same here. But an old, stripped down version of the program is still available for free. Then I went back to your instructions and found the correct download link. Naeem, Please double check if you have any spaces left at the end or beginning of the license before clicking activate or copy the key. Hey guy, help me! Yes, the problem remains-my key does not work. In short, everything looks so. Then im profsesional my key. How to understand this? This is normal, or is it a bug? If it still does not work, you can try activating the German version first and then installing English over it choosing repair option.

I was literally waiting for something like this. Expert pdf 8 professional free free a few weeks, actually. Thanks for working so hard for this site, William!

Google Chrome could not connect to ftp2. Thanks William, installed and activated with no problems. Whats the difference between Expert and ultimate version? Follow below simply steps to grab your free copy: 1. An email with a Confirmation link will be sent to your email.

Method One: Change expert pdf 8 professional free free registry. Done, it should be English Now. Here is the proof: Old Promo — Still Working! No Comments Oct 3, No Comments Dec 4, Profedsional May 8, Hi, serial is fine on reinstalling. Jed April 8, Увидеть больше April 8, Jed April 9, Admin April 9, ffee Shankar November 19, Downloaded English version, Installed, 88. After 10 days use, it has stopped working.

Shankar, I am sorry for this. Sorry again for any and all the inconveniences this may have caused. Take care. Skeptical November 7, This one worked like a champ…thank you! Naeem November 6, Ota November 6, Try my code: [removed now] please delete this in a couple of mins William. Ota, thanks very much for sharing. I have deleted the code now. Have a nice day! Shankar November 6, Painkiller November expert pdf 8 professional free free, HEM November expfrt, Owen November 6, HEM, What error message did you get?

You may also try a download manager. HEM, checked, all links work fine here. Which language version do you need? Go to mobile version.


Expert PDF Professional : the professionnal tool to create, convert or edit all your PDF documents


Computer security , cybersecurity cyber security , or information technology security IT security is the protection of computer systems and networks from information disclosure, theft of, or damage to their hardware , software , or electronic data , as well as from the disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.

The field has become of significance due to the expanded reliance on computer systems , the Internet , [3] and wireless network standards such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi , and due to the growth of “smart” devices , including smartphones , televisions , and the various devices that constitute the Internet of things IoT. Cybersecurity is also one of the significant challenges in the contemporary world , due to the complexity of information systems , both in terms of political usage and technology.

Its primary goal is to ensure the system’s dependability, integrity, and data privacy. Since the Internet ‘s arrival and with the digital transformation initiated in recent years, the notion of cybersecurity has become a familiar subject in both our professional and personal lives.

Cybersecurity and cyber threats have been consistently present for the last 50 years of technological change. In the s and s, computer security was mainly limited to academia until the conception of the Internet, where, with increased connectivity, computer viruses and network intrusions began to take off.

After the spread of viruses in the s, the s marked the institutionalization [ clarification needed ] of cyber threats and cybersecurity. The April session organized by Willis Ware at the Spring Joint Computer Conference , and the later publication of the Ware Report , were foundational moments in the history of the field of computer security.

However, in the s and s there were no grave computer threats because computers and the internet were still developing, and security threats were easily identifiable. Most often, threats came from malicious insiders who gained unauthorized access to sensitive documents and files. Although malware and network breaches existed during the early years, they did not use them for financial gain. By the second half of the s, established computer firms like IBM started offering commercial access control systems and computer security software products.

It started with Creeper in It is considered the first computer worm. In , the first anti-virus software was created, called Reaper. Between September and June , a group of German hackers performed the first documented case of cyber espionage.

The group hacked into American defense contractors, universities, and military bases’ networks and sold gathered information to the Soviet KGB. The group was led by Markus Hess , who was arrested on 29 June He was convicted of espionage along with two co-conspirators on 15 Feb In , one of the first computer worms, called the Morris worm , was distributed via the Internet. It gained significant mainstream media attention.

Netscape had SSL version 1. These weaknesses included replay attacks and a vulnerability that allowed hackers to alter unencrypted communications sent by users. However, in February , Netscape launched the Version 2. Protecting information systems includes evaluating software, identifying security flaws, and taking steps to correct the flaws, which is a defensive action. Collecting intelligence includes exploiting security flaws to extract information, which is an offensive action.

Correcting security flaws makes the flaws unavailable for NSA exploitation. The agency analyzes commonly used software in order to find security flaws, which it reserves for offensive purposes against competitors of the United States. The agency seldom takes defensive action by reporting the flaws to software producers so that they can eliminate them. The offensive strategy worked for a while, but eventually other nations, including Russia , Iran , North Korea , and China , acquired their own offensive capability and have tended to use it against the United States.

NSA contractors created and sold “click-and-shoot” attack tools to U. NSA’s employees and contractors have been recruited at high salaries by adversaries, anxious to compete in cyberwarfare. For example, in , the United States and Israel began exploiting security flaws in the Microsoft Windows operating system to attack and damage equipment used in Iran to refine nuclear materials.

Iran responded by heavily investing in their own cyberwarfare capability, which they began using against the United States. A vulnerability is a weakness in design, implementation, operation, or internal control.

Most of the vulnerabilities that have been discovered are documented in the Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures CVE database. A backdoor in a computer system, a cryptosystem or an algorithm , is any secret method of bypassing normal authentication or security controls. They may exist for many reasons, including by original design or poor configuration.

They may have been added by an authorized party to allow some legitimate access, or by an attacker for malicious reasons; but regardless of the motives for their existence, they create a vulnerability. Backdoors can be very hard to detect, and backdoors are usually discovered by someone who has access to application source code or intimate knowledge of the operating system of the computer.

Denial of service attacks DoS are designed to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users. While a network attack from a single IP address can be blocked by adding a new firewall rule, many forms of Distributed denial of service DDoS attacks are possible, where the attack comes from a large number of points — and defending is much more difficult.

Such attacks can originate from the zombie computers of a botnet or from a range of other possible techniques, including reflection and amplification attacks , where innocent systems are fooled into sending traffic to the victim. An unauthorized user gaining physical access to a computer is most likely able to directly copy data from it. They may also compromise security by making operating system modifications, installing software worms, keyloggers , covert listening devices or using wireless microphones.

Even when the system is protected by standard security measures, these may be bypassed by booting another operating system or tool from a CD-ROM or other bootable media.

Disk encryption and Trusted Platform Module are designed to prevent these attacks. Eavesdropping is the act of surreptitiously listening to a private computer “conversation” communication , typically between hosts on a network.

Even machines that operate as a closed system i. Surfacing in , a new class of multi-vector, [18] polymorphic [19] cyber threats combined several types of attacks and changed form to avoid cybersecurity controls as they spread. Phishing is the attempt of acquiring sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details directly from users by deceiving the users.

The fake website often asks for personal information, such as log-in details and passwords. This information can then be used to gain access to the individual’s real account on the real website. Preying on a victim’s trust, phishing can be classified as a form of social engineering. Attackers are using creative ways to gain access to real accounts. A common scam is for attackers to send fake electronic invoices [21] to individuals showing that they recently purchased music, apps, or others, and instructing them to click on a link if the purchases were not authorized.

Privilege escalation describes a situation where an attacker with some level of restricted access is able to, without authorization, elevate their privileges or access level. For example, a standard computer user may be able to exploit a vulnerability in the system to gain access to restricted data; or even become ” root ” and have full unrestricted access to a system. Reverse engineering is the process by which a man-made object is deconstructed to reveal its designs, code, architecture, or to extract knowledge from the object; similar to scientific research, the only difference being that scientific research is about a natural phenomenon.

Any computational system affects its environment in some form. This effect it has on its environment, includes a wide range of criteria, which can range from electromagnetic radiation, to residual effect on RAM cells which as a consequent make a Cold boot attack possible, to hardware implementation faults which allow for access and or guessing of other values that normally should be inaccessible. In Side-channel attack scenarios the attacker would gather such information about a system or network to guess its internal state, and as a result access the information which is assumed by the victim to be secure.

Social engineering , in the context of computer security, aims to convince a user to disclose secrets such as passwords, card numbers, etc. A common scam involves emails sent to accounting and finance department personnel, impersonating their CEO and urgently requesting some action.

In May , the Milwaukee Bucks NBA team was the victim of this type of cyber scam with a perpetrator impersonating the team’s president Peter Feigin , resulting in the handover of all the team’s employees’ W-2 tax forms.

Spoofing is an act of masquerading as a valid entity through falsification of data such as an IP address or username , in order to gain access to information or resources that one is otherwise unauthorized to obtain. Tampering describes a malicious modification or alteration of data. So-called Evil Maid attacks and security services planting of surveillance capability into routers are examples.

Malicious software malware installed on a computer can leak any information, such as personal information, business information and passwords, can give control of the system to the attacker, and can corrupt or delete data permanently. Employee behavior can have a big impact on information security in organizations. Cultural concepts can help different segments of the organization work effectively or work against effectiveness towards information security within an organization.

Information security culture is the ” Andersson and Reimers found that employees often do not see themselves as part of their organization’s information security effort and often take actions that impede organizational changes. The growth in the number of computer systems and the increasing reliance upon them by individuals, businesses, industries, and governments means that there are an increasing number of systems at risk.

The computer systems of financial regulators and financial institutions like the U. Securities and Exchange Commission , SWIFT, investment banks, and commercial banks are prominent hacking targets for cybercriminals interested in manipulating markets and making illicit gains. Computers control functions at many utilities, including coordination of telecommunications , the power grid , nuclear power plants , and valve opening and closing in water and gas networks.

The Internet is a potential attack vector for such machines if connected, but the Stuxnet worm demonstrated that even equipment controlled by computers not connected to the Internet can be vulnerable. In , the Computer Emergency Readiness Team , a division of the Department of Homeland Security , investigated 79 hacking incidents at energy companies. The aviation industry is very reliant on a series of complex systems which could be attacked.

The consequences of a successful attack range from loss of confidentiality to loss of system integrity, air traffic control outages, loss of aircraft, and even loss of life. Desktop computers and laptops are commonly targeted to gather passwords or financial account information, or to construct a botnet to attack another target. Smartphones , tablet computers , smart watches , and other mobile devices such as quantified self devices like activity trackers have sensors such as cameras, microphones, GPS receivers, compasses, and accelerometers which could be exploited, and may collect personal information, including sensitive health information.

WiFi, Bluetooth, and cell phone networks on any of these devices could be used as attack vectors, and sensors might be remotely activated after a successful breach. The increasing number of home automation devices such as the Nest thermostat are also potential targets. Large corporations are common targets. In many cases attacks are aimed at financial gain through identity theft and involve data breaches. Examples include the loss of millions of clients’ credit card details by Home Depot , [47] Staples , [48] Target Corporation , [49] and the most recent breach of Equifax.

Medical records have been targeted in general identify theft, health insurance fraud, and impersonating patients to obtain prescription drugs for recreational purposes or resale. Not all attacks are financially motivated, however: security firm HBGary Federal suffered a serious series of attacks in from hacktivist group Anonymous in retaliation for the firm’s CEO claiming to have infiltrated their group, [53] [54] and Sony Pictures was hacked in with the apparent dual motive of embarrassing the company through data leaks and crippling the company by wiping workstations and servers.

Vehicles are increasingly computerized, with engine timing, cruise control , anti-lock brakes , seat belt tensioners, door locks, airbags and advanced driver-assistance systems on many models. Additionally, connected cars may use WiFi and Bluetooth to communicate with onboard consumer devices and the cell phone network. All of these systems carry some security risk, and such issues have gained wide attention.

Simple examples of risk include a malicious compact disc being used as an attack vector, [61] and the car’s onboard microphones being used for eavesdropping.

However, if access is gained to a car’s internal controller area network , the danger is much greater [57] — and in a widely publicized test, hackers remotely carjacked a vehicle from 10 miles away and drove it into a ditch. Manufacturers are reacting in numerous ways, with Tesla in pushing out some security fixes “over the air” into its cars’ computer systems. Government and military computer systems are commonly attacked by activists [67] [68] [69] and foreign powers.

The Internet of things IoT is the network of physical objects such as devices, vehicles, and buildings that are embedded with electronics , software , sensors , and network connectivity that enables them to collect and exchange data.


Expert pdf 8 professional free free


Considering that, in accordance with the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,. Recognizing that, in accordance with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the ideal of free human beings enjoying civil and political freedom and freedom from fear and want can only be achieved if conditions are created whereby everyone may enjoy his civil and political rights, as well as his economic, social and cultural rights,.

Considering the obligation of States under the Charter of the United Nations to promote universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and freedoms,. Realizing that the individual, having duties to other individuals and to the community to which he belongs, is under a responsibility to strive for the promotion and observance of the rights recognized in the present Covenant,.

All peoples have the right of self-determination. By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development.

All peoples may, for their own ends, freely dispose of their natural wealth and resources without prejudice to any obligations arising out of international economic co-operation, based upon the principle of mutual benefit, and international law. In no case may a people be deprived of its own means of subsistence. The States Parties to the present Covenant, including those having responsibility for the administration of Non-Self-Governing and Trust Territories, shall promote the realization of the right of self-determination, and shall respect that right, in conformity with the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations.

Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes to respect and to ensure to all individuals within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction the rights recognized in the present Covenant, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Where not already provided for by existing legislative or other measures, each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes to take the necessary steps, in accordance with its constitutional processes and with the provisions of the present Covenant, to adopt such laws or other measures as may be necessary to give effect to the rights recognized in the present Covenant.

The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to ensure the equal right of men and women to the enjoyment of all civil and political rights set forth in the present Covenant. In time of public emergency which threatens the life of the nation and the existence of which is officially proclaimed, the States Parties to the present Covenant may take measures derogating from their obligations under the present Covenant to the extent strictly required by the exigencies of the situation, provided that such measures are not inconsistent with their other obligations under international law and do not involve discrimination solely on the ground of race, colour, sex, language, religion or social origin.

No derogation from articles 6, 7, 8 paragraphs I and 2 , 11, 15, 16 and 18 may be made under this provision. Any State Party to the present Covenant availing itself of the right of derogation shall immediately inform the other States Parties to the present Covenant, through the intermediary of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, of the provisions from which it has derogated and of the reasons by which it was actuated.

A further communication shall be made, through the same intermediary, on the date on which it terminates such derogation. Nothing in the present Covenant may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms recognized herein or at their limitation to a greater extent than is provided for in the present Covenant. There shall be no restriction upon or derogation from any of the fundamental human rights recognized or existing in any State Party to the present Covenant pursuant to law, conventions, regulations or custom on the pretext that the present Covenant does not recognize such rights or that it recognizes them to a lesser extent.

Every human being has the inherent right to life. This right shall be protected by law. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his life. In countries which have not abolished the death penalty, sentence of death may be imposed only for the most serious crimes in accordance with the law in force at the time of the commission of the crime and not contrary to the provisions of the present Covenant and to the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.

This penalty can only be carried out pursuant to a final judgement rendered by a competent court. When deprivation of life constitutes the crime of genocide, it is understood that nothing in this article shall authorize any State Party to the present Covenant to derogate in any way from any obligation assumed under the provisions of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.

Anyone sentenced to death shall have the right to seek pardon or commutation of the sentence. Amnesty, pardon or commutation of the sentence of death may be granted in all cases.

Sentence of death shall not be imposed for crimes committed by persons below eighteen years of age and shall not be carried out on pregnant women.

Nothing in this article shall be invoked to delay or to prevent the abolition of capital punishment by any State Party to the present Covenant. No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. In particular, no one shall be subjected without his free consent to medical or scientific experimentation.

No one shall be held in slavery; slavery and the slave-trade in all their forms shall be prohibited. Everyone has the right to liberty and security of person. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest or detention.

No one shall be deprived of his liberty except on such grounds and in accordance with such procedure as are established by law. Anyone who is arrested shall be informed, at the time of arrest, of the reasons for his arrest and shall be promptly informed of any charges against him. Anyone arrested or detained on a criminal charge shall be brought promptly before a judge or other officer authorized by law to exercise judicial power and shall be entitled to trial within a reasonable time or to release.

It shall not be the general rule that persons awaiting trial shall be detained in custody, but release may be subject to guarantees to appear for trial, at any other stage of the judicial proceedings, and, should occasion arise, for execution of the judgement.

Anyone who is deprived of his liberty by arrest or detention shall be entitled to take proceedings before a court, in order that that court may decide without delay on the lawfulness of his detention and order his release if the detention is not lawful. Anyone who has been the victim of unlawful arrest or detention shall have an enforceable right to compensation.

All persons deprived of their liberty shall be treated with humanity and with respect for the inherent dignity of the human person. The penitentiary system shall comprise treatment of prisoners the essential aim of which shall be their reformation and social rehabilitation. Juvenile offenders shall be segregated from adults and be accorded treatment appropriate to their age and legal status. Everyone lawfully within the territory of a State shall, within that territory, have the right to liberty of movement and freedom to choose his residence.

The above-mentioned rights shall not be subject to any restrictions except those which are provided by law, are necessary to protect national security, public order ordre public , public health or morals or the rights and freedoms of others, and are consistent with the other rights recognized in the present Covenant.

An alien lawfully in the territory of a State Party to the present Covenant may be expelled therefrom only in pursuance of a decision reached in accordance with law and shall, except where compelling reasons of national security otherwise require, be allowed to submit the reasons against his expulsion and to have his case reviewed by, and be represented for the purpose before, the competent authority or a person or persons especially designated by the competent authority.

All persons shall be equal before the courts and tribunals. In the determination of any criminal charge against him, or of his rights and obligations in a suit at law, everyone shall be entitled to a fair and public hearing by a competent, independent and impartial tribunal established by law.

The press and the public may be excluded from all or part of a trial for reasons of morals, public order ordre public or national security in a democratic society, or when the interest of the private lives of the parties so requires, or to the extent strictly necessary in the opinion of the court in special circumstances where publicity would prejudice the interests of justice; but any judgement rendered in a criminal case or in a suit at law shall be made public except where the interest of juvenile persons otherwise requires or the proceedings concern matrimonial disputes or the guardianship of children.

Everyone charged with a criminal offence shall have the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law. In the determination of any criminal charge against him, everyone shall be entitled to the following minimum guarantees, in full equality: a To be informed promptly and in detail in a language which he understands of the nature and cause of the charge against him;.

Everyone convicted of a crime shall have the right to his conviction and sentence being reviewed by a higher tribunal according to law. When a person has by a final decision been convicted of a criminal offence and when subsequently his conviction has been reversed or he has been pardoned on the ground that a new or newly discovered fact shows conclusively that there has been a miscarriage of justice, the person who has suffered punishment as a result of such conviction shall be compensated according to law, unless it is proved that the non-disclosure of the unknown fact in time is wholly or partly attributable to him.

No one shall be liable to be tried or punished again for an offence for which he has already been finally convicted or acquitted in accordance with the law and penal procedure of each country. No one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a criminal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time when the criminal offence was committed.

If, subsequent to the commission of the offence, provision is made by law for the imposition of the lighter penalty, the offender shall benefit thereby. Nothing in this article shall prejudice the trial and punishment of any person for any act or omission which, at the time when it was committed, was criminal according to the general principles of law recognized by the community of nations.

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his honour and reputation.

Everyone shall have the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. This right shall include freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice, and freedom, either individually or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in worship, observance, practice and teaching.

No one shall be subject to coercion which would impair his freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice. Freedom to manifest one’s religion or beliefs may be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary to protect public safety, order, health, or morals or the fundamental rights and freedoms of others.

The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to have respect for the liberty of parents and, when applicable, legal guardians to ensure the religious and moral education of their children in conformity with their own convictions. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of his choice.

The exercise of the rights provided for in paragraph 2 of this article carries with it special duties and responsibilities. It may therefore be subject to certain restrictions, but these shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary:. Any advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence shall be prohibited by law.

The right of peaceful assembly shall be recognized. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of this right other than those imposed in conformity with the law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety, public order ordre public , the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.

Everyone shall have the right to freedom of association with others, including the right to form and join trade unions for the protection of his interests. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of this right other than those which are prescribed by law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety, public order ordre public , the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.

This article shall not prevent the imposition of lawful restrictions on members of the armed forces and of the police in their exercise of this right. Nothing in this article shall authorize States Parties to the International Labour Organisation Convention of concerning Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organize to take legislative measures which would prejudice, or to apply the law in such a manner as to prejudice, the guarantees provided for in that Convention. The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.

The right of men and women of marriageable age to marry and to found a family shall be recognized. States Parties to the present Covenant shall take appropriate steps to ensure equality of rights and responsibilities of spouses as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution. In the case of dissolution, provision shall be made for the necessary protection of any children. Every child shall have, without any discrimination as to race, colour, sex, language, religion, national or social origin, property or birth, the right to such measures of protection as are required by his status as a minor, on the part of his family, society and the State.

Every citizen shall have the right and the opportunity, without any of the distinctions mentioned in article 2 and without unreasonable restrictions:. All persons are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to the equal protection of the law. In this respect, the law shall prohibit any discrimination and guarantee to all persons equal and effective protection against discrimination on any ground such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

In those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities exist, persons belonging to such minorities shall not be denied the right, in community with the other members of their group, to enjoy their own culture, to profess and practise their own religion, or to use their own language.

There shall be established a Human Rights Committee hereafter referred to in the present Covenant as the Committee. It shall consist of eighteen members and shall carry out the functions hereinafter provided. The Committee shall be composed of nationals of the States Parties to the present Covenant who shall be persons of high moral character and recognized competence in the field of human rights, consideration being given to the usefulness of the participation of some persons having legal experience.

The members of the Committee shall be elected by secret ballot from a list of persons possessing the qualifications prescribed in article 28 and nominated for the purpose by the States Parties to the present Covenant. Each State Party to the present Covenant may nominate not more than two persons. These persons shall be nationals of the nominating State. The initial election shall be held no later than six months after the date of the entry into force of the present Covenant.

At least four months before the date of each election to the Committee, other than an election to fill a vacancy declared in accordance with article 34, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall address a written invitation to the States Parties to the present Covenant to submit their nominations for membership of the Committee within three months.

The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall prepare a list in alphabetical order of all the persons thus nominated, with an indication of the States Parties which have nominated them, and shall submit it to the States Parties to the present Covenant no later than one month before the date of each election.

Elections of the members of the Committee shall be held at a meeting of the States Parties to the present Covenant convened by the Secretary General of the United Nations at the Headquarters of the United Nations. At that meeting, for which two thirds of the States Parties to the present Covenant shall constitute a quorum, the persons elected to the Committee shall be those nominees who obtain the largest number of votes and an absolute majority of the votes of the representatives of States Parties present and voting.

In the election of the Committee, consideration shall be given to equitable geographical distribution of membership and to the representation of the different forms of civilization and of the principal legal systems. Elections at the expiry of office shall be held in accordance with the preceding articles of this part of the present Covenant. If, in the unanimous opinion of the other members, a member of the Committee has ceased to carry out his functions for any cause other than absence of a temporary character, the Chairman of the Committee shall notify the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall then declare the seat of that member to be vacant.

In the event of the death or the resignation of a member of the Committee, the Chairman shall immediately notify the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall declare the seat vacant from the date of death or the date on which the resignation takes effect.

When a vacancy is declared in accordance with article 33 and if the term of office of the member to be replaced does not expire within six months of the declaration of the vacancy, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall notify each of the States Parties to the present Covenant, which may within two months submit nominations in accordance with article 29 for the purpose of filling the vacancy.

The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall prepare a list in alphabetical order of the persons thus nominated and shall submit it to the States Parties to the present Covenant.